JULIUS CAESAR-One Of The Most Powerful Man In History

 

Julius Caesar was a renowned general, politician and scholar in ancient Rome who conquered the vast region of Gaul and helped initiate the end of the Roman Republic when he became dictator of the Roman Empire. Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar turned the Roman Republic into the powerful Roman Empire.

 

While Caesar hailed from Roman aristocrats, his family was far from rich. When he was 16, his father, an important regional governor in Asia also named Gaius Julius Caesar, died. He remained close to his mother, Aurelia.

Little is known of Caesar’s early years, but during his youth an element of instability dominated the Roman Republic, which had discredited its nobility and seemed unable to handle its considerable size and influence.

 

Around the time of his father’s death, Caesar made a concerted effort to establish key alliances with the country’s nobility, with whom he was well-connected.

 

In 84 B.C., Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of a nobleman. Together they had a daughter, Julia Caesaris, in 76 B.C. In 69 B.C., Cornelia passed away.

Caesar’s marriage to Cornelia drew the ire of the Roman dictator Sulla, as Cornelia’s father was Sulla’s political rival. Sulla ordered Caesar to divorce his wife or risk losing his property. 

 

The young Roman refused and escaped by serving in the military, first in the province of Asia and then in Cilicia. With the help of his influential friends, Caesar eventually convinced Sulla to be allowed to return to Rome.

Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 or 13 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progressed within the Roman political system, becoming in succession quaestor (69), aedile (65) and praetor (62). In 61-60 BC he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain.

 

The same year, Caesar wed Calpurnia, a teenager to whom he remained married for the rest of his life. (He also had several mistresses, including CLEOPATRA VII , Queen of Egypt, with whom he had a son, Caesarion.)

 

At the same time Caesar was governing under Pompey, he aligned himself with the wealthy military leader Marcus Licinius Crassus. The strategic political alliance among Caesar, Pompey and Crassus came to be known as the First Triumvirate. 

For Caesar, the First Triumvirate partnership was the perfect springboard to greater domination. Crassus, a leader known as the richest man in Roman history, offered Caesar financial and political support that proved to be instrumental in his rise to power.

Back in Rome in 60, Caesar made a pact with Pompey and Crassus, who helped him to get elected as consul for 59 BC. The following year he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul where he stayed for eight years, adding the whole of modern France and Belgium to the Roman empire, and making Rome safe from the possibility of Gallic invasions. He made two expeditions to Britain, in 55 BC and 54 BC.

 

Crassus and Pompey, however, were intense rivals. Once again, Caesar displayed his abilities as a negotiator, earning the trust of both Crassus and Pompey and convincing them they’d be better suited as allies than as enemies.

 

As Julius Caesar’s power and prestige grew, Pompey grew envious of his political partner. Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his disdain for Pompey. 

The three leaders patched things up temporarily in 56 B.C. at a conference in Luca, which cemented Caesar’s existing territorial rule for another five years, granted Crassus a five-year term in Syria and accorded Pompey a five-year term in Spain. 

Three years later, however, Crassus was killed in a battle in Syria. Around this time, Pompey—his old suspicions about Caesar’s rise reignited—commanded that Caesar disband his army and return to Rome as a private citizen. 

 

Upon his triumphant return to Rome, Caesar was hailed as the father of his country and made dictator for life. Although he would serve just a year’s term, Caesar’s rule proved instrumental in reforming Rome for his countrymen. 

Caesar greatly transformed the empire, relieving debt and reforming the Senate by increasing its size and opening it up so that it better represented all Romans. He altered the Roman calendar and reorganized the construction of local government. 

 

While Caesar’s reforms greatly enhanced his standing with Rome’s lower- and middle-class populations, his increasing power was met with envy, concern and angst in the Roman Senate. A number of politicians saw Caesar as an aspiring king. 

And Romans had no desire for monarchical rule: Legend has it that it had been five centuries since they’d last allowed a king to rule them. Caesar’s inclusion of former Roman enemies in the government helped seal his downfall.

Caesar was assassinated by political rivals on the IDES OF MARCH (March 15th), 44 B.C. It’s not clear whether Caesar knew of the plot to kill him: By all accounts, he planned to leave Rome on March 18 for a military campaign in what is now modern-day Iraq, where he hoped to avenge the losses suffered by his former political ally Crassus.

 

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